JavaScript进阶之前端文件上传和下载示例详解

目录

文件下载

1.通过a标签点击直接下载
<a href="https:xxx.xlsx" rel="external nofollow"  download="test">下载文件</a>

download属性标识文件需要下载且下载名称为test

如果有 Content-Disposition 响应头,则不需要设置download属性就能下载,文件名在响应头里面由后端控制

此方法有同源和请求headers鉴权的问题

2.open或location.href
window.open('xxx.zip');
location.href = 'xxx.zip';

需要注意 url 长度和编码问题

不能直接下载浏览器默认预览的文件,如txt、图片

3.Blob和Base64
function downloadFile(res, Filename) {
  // res为接口返回数据,在请求接口的时候可进行鉴权
  if (!res) return;
  // IE及IE内核浏览器
  if ("msSaveOrOpenBlob" in navigator) {
    navigator.msSaveOrOpenBlob(res, name);
    return;
  }
  const url = URL.createObjectURL(new Blob([res]));
  //  const fileReader = new FileReader();  使用 Base64 编码生成
  // fileReader.readAsDataURL(res);
  // fileReader.onload = function() { ...此处逻辑和下面创建a标签并释放代码一致,可从fileReader.result获取href值...}
  const a = document.createElement("a");
  a.style.display = "none";
  a.href = url;
  a.download = Filename;
  document.body.appendChild(a);
  a.click();
  document.body.removeChild(a);
  URL.revokeObjectURL(url); // 释放blob对象
}

注意 请求发送的时候注明 responseType = "blob",如无设置则需要 new Blob的时候传入第二个参数,如

new Blob([res], { type: xhr.getResponseHeader("Content-Type") });

此方法可以解决请求headers鉴权和下载浏览器默认直接预览的文件,并得知下载进度

文件上传

文件上传思路

File文件 MDN描述

上传单个文件-客户端
<input id="uploadFile" type="file" accept="image/*" />
type属性file:用户选择文件 accept属性:规定选择文件的类型

<body>
    <input id="uploadFile" type="file" accept="image/*" />
    <button type="button" id="uploadBtn" onClick="startUpload()">开始上传</button>
    <div class="progress">上传进度:<span id="progressValue">0</span></div>
    <div id="uploadResult" class="result"></div>
    <script>
      const uploadFileEle = document.getElementById("uploadFile");
      const progressValueEle = document.getElementById("progressValue");
      const uploadResultEle = document.getElementById("uploadResult");
      try {
        function startUpload() {
          if (!uploadFileEle.files.length) return;
          // 获取文件
          const file = uploadFileEle.files[0];
          // 创建上传数据
          const formData = new FormData();
          formData.append("file", file);
          // 上传文件
          upload(formData);
        }
        function upload(data) {
          const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
          xhr.onreadystatechange = function () {
            if (xhr.readyState === 4 && xhr.status === 200) {
              const result = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText);
              console.log("result:", result);
              uploadResultEle.innerText = xhr.responseText;
            }
          };
          // 上传进度
          xhr.upload.onprogress = function (event) {
            if (event.lengthComputable) {
              progressValueEle.innerText = Math.ceil((event.loaded * 100) / event.total) + "%";
            }
          };
          xhr.open("POST", "http://127.0.0.1:3000/upload", true);
          xhr.send(data);
        }
      } catch (e) {
        console.log("error:", e);
      }
    </script>
</body>

上传文件-服务端 客户端使用form-data传递,服务端使用相同方式接受解析 使用 multer 库处理 multipart/form-data

const app = express();
// 上传成功后返回URL地址
const resourceUrl = `http://127.0.0.1:${port}/`;
// 存储文件目录
const uploadDIr = path.join(__dirname, "/upload");
// destination 设置资源保存路径,filename 设置资源名称
const storage = multer.diskStorage({
  destination: async function (_req, _file, cb) {
    cb(null, uploadDIr);
  },
  filename: function (_req, file, cb) {
    // 设置文件名
    cb(null, `${file.originalname}`);
  },
});
const multerUpload = multer({ storage });
//设置静态访问目录
app.use(express.static(uploadDIr));
app.post("/upload", multerUpload.any(), function (req, res, _next) {
  // req.file 是 `avatar` 文件的信息
  let urls = [];
  //获取所有已上传的文件
  const files = req.files;
  if (files && files.length > 0) {
    //遍历生成url 集合返回给客户端
    urls = files.map((item, _key) => {
      return resourceUrl + item.originalname;
    });
  }
  return res.json({
    REV: true,
    DATA: {
      url: urls,
    },
    MSG: "成功",
  });
});

多文件上传-客户端 input属性:multiple是否允许多个值(相关类型email、file )
 <body>
    <input id="uploadFile" type="file" accept="image/*" multiple />
    <button id="uploadBtn" onClick="startUpload()">开始上传</button>
    <div class="progress">上传进度:<span id="progressValue">0</span></div>
    <div id="uploadResult" class="result"></div>
    <script>
      const uploadFileEle = document.getElementById("uploadFile");
      const progressValueEle = document.getElementById("progressValue");
      const uploadResultEle = document.getElementById("uploadResult");
      try {
        function startUpload() {
          if (!uploadFileEle.files.length) return;
          //获取文件
          const files = uploadFileEle.files;
          const formData = this.getUploadData(files);
          this.upload(formData);
        }
        //添加多个文件
        function getUploadData(files) {
          const formData = new FormData();
          for (let i = 0; i < files.length; i++) {
            const file = files[i];
            formData.append(file.name, file);
          }
          return formData;
        }
        function upload(data) {
          const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
          xhr.onreadystatechange = function () {
            if (xhr.readyState === 4 && xhr.status === 200) {
              const result = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText);
              console.log("result:", result);
              uploadResultEle.innerText = xhr.responseText;
            }
          };
          xhr.upload.addEventListener(
            "progress",
            function (event) {
              if (event.lengthComputable) {
                progressValueEle.innerText = Math.ceil((event.loaded * 100) / event.total) + "%";
              }
            },
            false
          );
          xhr.open("POST", "http://127.0.0.1:3000/upload", true);
          xhr.send(data);
        }
      } catch (e) {
        console.log("error:", e);
      }
    </script>
  </body>

大文件上传-客户端

<body>
    <input id="uploadFile" type="file" />
    <button type="button" id="uploadBtn" onClick="startUpload()">开始上传</button>
    <div class="progress">上传进度:<span id="progressValue">0</span></div>
    <div id="uploadResult" class="result"></div>
    <script src="./fileUtils.js"></script>
    <script src="./spark-md5.min.js"></script>
    <script src="./index.js"></script>
    <script>
      const uploadFileEle = document.getElementById("uploadFile");
      const progressValueEle = document.getElementById("progressValue");
      const uploadResultEle = document.getElementById("uploadResult");
      try {
        function startUpload() {
          if (!uploadFileEle.files.length) return;
          //获取文件
          const file = uploadFileEle.files[0];
          window.upload.start(file);
        }
      } catch (e) {
        console.log("error:", e);
      }
    </script>
  </body>

fileUtils

// 文件分片
function handleFileChunk(file, chunkSize) {
    const fileChunkList = [];
    // 索引值
    let curIndex = 0;
    while (curIndex < file.size) {
        // 最后一个切片以实际结束大小为准。
        const endIndex = curIndex + chunkSize < file.size ? curIndex + chunkSize : file.size;
        // 截取当前切片大小
        const curFileChunkFile = file.slice(curIndex, endIndex);
        // 更新当前索引
        curIndex += chunkSize;
        fileChunkList.push({ file: curFileChunkFile });
    }
    return fileChunkList;
}
//设置默认切片大小为5M
const DefaultChunkSize = 5 * 1024 * 1024;
const start = async function (bigFile) {
  // 生成多个切片
  const fileList = handleFileChunk(bigFile, DefaultChunkSize);
  // 获取整个大文件的内容hash,方便实现秒传
  // const containerHash = await getFileHash(fileList);
  const containerHash = await getFileHash2(bigFile);
  // 给每个切片添加辅助内容信息
  const chunksInfo = fileList.map(({ file }, index) => ({
    // 整个文件hash
    fileHash: containerHash,
    // 当前切片的hash
    hash: containerHash + "-" + index,
    // 当前是第几个切片
    index,
    // 文件个数
    fileCount: fileList.length,
    // 切片内容
    chunk: file,
    // 文件总体大小
    totalSize: bigFile.size,
    // 单个文件大小
    size: file.size,
  }));
  //上传所有文件
  uploadChunks(chunksInfo, bigFile.name);
};
/**
 *
 * 获取全部文件内容hash
 * @param {any} fileList
 */
async function getFileHash(fileList) {
  console.time("filehash");
  const spark = new SparkMD5.ArrayBuffer();
  // 获取全部内容
  const result = fileList.map((item, key) => {
    return getFileContent(item.file);
  });
  try {
    const contentList = await Promise.all(result);
    for (let i = 0; i < contentList.length; i++) {
      spark.append(contentList[i]);
    }
    // 生成指纹
    const res = spark.end();
    console.timeEnd("filehash");
    return res;
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(e);
  }
}
/**
 *
 * 获取全部文件内容hash
 * @param {any} fileList
 */
async function getFileHash2(fileList) {
  console.time("filehash");
  const spark = new SparkMD5.ArrayBuffer();
  // 获取全部内容
  const content = await getFileContent(fileList);
  try {
    spark.append(content);
    // 生成指纹
    const result = spark.end();
    console.timeEnd("filehash");
    return result;
  } catch (e) {
    console.log(e);
  }
}
/**
 *
 * 获取文件内容
 * @param {any} file
 */
function getFileContent(file) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const fileReader = new FileReader();
    // 读取文件内容
    fileReader.readAsArrayBuffer(file);
    fileReader.onload = (e) => {
      // 返回读取到的文件内容
      resolve(e.target.result);
    };
    fileReader.onerror = (e) => {
      reject(fileReader.error);
      fileReader.abort();
    };
  });
}
/**
 *
 * 上传所有的分片
 * @param {any} chunks
 * @param {any} fileName
 */
async function uploadChunks(chunks, fileName) {
  const requestList = chunks
    .map(({ chunk, hash, fileHash, index, fileCount, size, totalSize }) => {
      //生成每个切片上传的信息
      const formData = new FormData();
      formData.append("hash", hash);
      formData.append("index", index);
      formData.append("fileCount", fileCount);
      formData.append("size", size);
      formData.append("splitSize", DefaultChunkSize);
      formData.append("fileName", fileName);
      formData.append("fileHash", fileHash);
      formData.append("chunk", chunk);
      formData.append("totalSize", totalSize);
      return { formData, index };
    })
    .map(async ({ formData, index }) =>
      singleRequest({
        url: "http://127.0.0.1:3000/uploadBigFile",
        data: formData,
      })
    );
  //全部上传
  await Promise.all(requestList);
}
/**
 * 单个文件上传
 */
function singleRequest({ url, method = "post", data, headers = {} }) {
  return new Promise((resolve) => {
    const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.open(method, url);
    Object.keys(headers).forEach((key) => xhr.setRequestHeader(key, headers[key]));
    xhr.send(data);
    xhr.onload = (e) => {
      resolve({
        data: e.target.response,
      });
    };
  });
}
window.upload = {
  start: start,
};

大文件上传-服务端

...
import { checkFileIsMerge, chunkMerge } from "./upload";
const multiparty = require("multiparty");
const fse = require("fs-extra");
// 上传成功后返回URL地址
const resourceUrl = `http://127.0.0.1:${port}/`;
// 存储文件目录
const uploadDIr = path.join(__dirname, "/upload");
//设置静态访问目录
app.use(express.static(uploadDIr));
const extractExt = (filename) => filename.slice(filename.lastIndexOf("."), filename.length); // 提取后缀名
app.post("/uploadBigFile", function (req, res, _next) {
  const multipart = new multiparty.Form();
  multipart.parse(req, async (err, fields, files) => {
    if (err) {
      console.error(err);
      return res.json({
        code: 5000,
        data: null,
        msg: "上传文件失败",
      });
    }
    //取出文件内容
    const [chunk] = files.chunk;
    //当前chunk 文件hash
    const [hash] = fields.hash;
    //大文件的hash
    const [fileHash] = fields.fileHash;
    //大文件的名称
    const [fileName] = fields.fileName;
    //切片索引
    const [index] = fields.index;
    //总共切片个数
    const [fileCount] = fields.fileCount;
    //当前chunk 的大小
    // const [size] = fields.size;
    const [splitSize] = fields.splitSize;
    //整个文件大小
    const [totalSize] = fields.totalSize;
    const saveFileName = `${fileHash}${extractExt(fileName)}`;
    //获取整个文件存储路径
    const filePath = path.resolve(uploadDIr, saveFileName);
    const chunkDir = path.resolve(uploadDIr, fileHash);
    // 大文件存在直接返回,根据内容hash存储,可以实现后续秒传
    if (fse.existsSync(filePath)) {
      return res.json({
        code: 1000,
        data: { url: `${resourceUrl}${saveFileName}` },
        msg: "上传文件已存在",
      });
    }
    // 切片目录不存在,创建切片目录
    if (!fse.existsSync(chunkDir)) {
      await fse.mkdirs(chunkDir);
    }
    const chunkFile = path.resolve(chunkDir, hash);
    if (!fse.existsSync(chunkFile)) {
      await fse.move(chunk.path, path.resolve(chunkDir, hash));
    }
    const isMerge = checkFileIsMerge(chunkDir, Number(fileCount), fileHash);
    if (isMerge) {
      //合并
      await chunkMerge({
        filePath: filePath,
        fileHash: fileHash,
        chunkDir: chunkDir,
        splitSize: Number(splitSize),
        fileCount: Number(fileCount),
        totalSize: Number(totalSize),
      });
      return res.json({
        code: 1000,
        data: { url: `${resourceUrl}${saveFileName}` },
        msg: "文件上传成功",
      });
    } else {
      return res.json({
        code: 200,
        data: { url: `${resourceUrl}${filePath}` },
        msg: "文件上传成功",
      });
    }
  });
});

upload.ts

const fse = require("fs-extra");
const path = require("path");
/**
 * 读流,写流
 * @param path
 * @param writeStream
 * @returns
 */
const pipeStream = (path, writeStream) =>
    new Promise((resolve) => {
        const readStream = fse.createReadStream(path);
        readStream.on("end", () => {
            // fse.unlinkSync(path);
            resolve(null);
        });
        readStream.pipe(writeStream);
    });
/**
 * 
 * 合并所有切片
 * @export
 * @param {any} {
 *     filePath:文件路径包含后缀名
 *     fileHash:文件hash
 *     chunkDir:切片存放的临时目录
 *     splitSize:每个切片的大小
 *     fileCount:文件总个数
 *     totalSize:文件总大小
 * } 
 * @returns 
 */
export async function chunkMerge({
    filePath,
    fileHash,
    chunkDir,
    splitSize,
    fileCount,
    totalSize,
}) {
    const chunkPaths = await fse.readdir(chunkDir);
    //帅选合适的切片
    const filterPath = chunkPaths.filter((item) => {
        return item.includes(fileHash);
    });
    //数量不对,抛出错误
    if (filterPath.length !== fileCount) {
        console.log("合并错误");
        return;
    }
    // 根据切片下标进行排序,方便合并
    filterPath.sort((a, b) => a.split("-")[1] - b.split("-")[1]);
    await Promise.all(
        chunkPaths.map((chunkPath, index) => {
            //并发写入,需要知道开始和结束位置
            let end = (index + 1) * splitSize;
            if (index === fileCount - 1) {
                end = totalSize + 1;
            }
            return pipeStream(
                path.resolve(chunkDir, chunkPath),
                // 指定位置创建可写流
                fse.createWriteStream(filePath, {
                    start: index * splitSize,
                    end: end,
                })
            );
        })
    );
    //删除所有切片
    // fse.rmdirSync(chunkDir); // 合并后删除保存切片的目录
    return filePath;
}

/**
 * 
 * 检查切片是否可以合并
 * @export
 * @param {any} pathName 切片存储目录
 * @param {any} totalCount 大文件包含切片个数
 * @param {any} hash 大文件hash
 * @returns 
 */
export function checkFileIsMerge(pathName, totalCount, hash) {
    var dirs = [];
    //同步读取切片存储目录
    const readDir = fse.readdirSync(pathName);
    //判断目录下切片数量 小于 总切片数,不能合并
    if (readDir && readDir.length < totalCount) return false;
    //获取目录下所有真正属于该文件的切片,以大文件hash为准
    (function iterator(i) {
        if (i == readDir.length) {
            return;
        }
        const curFile = fse.statSync(path.join(pathName, readDir[i]));
        //提出目录和文件名不包含大文件hash的文件
        if (curFile.isFile() && readDir[i].includes(hash + "")) {
            dirs.push(readDir[i]);
        }
        iterator(i + 1);
    })(0);
    //数量一直,可以合并
    if (dirs.length === totalCount) {
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}

这里的大文件上传有几处问题,我没有解决,留给各位思考啦

内容hash计算速度如何提升(serviceworker) 文件上传进度 断点续传

以上就是JavaScript进阶前端文件上传和下载示例详解的详细内容,更多关于JavaScript前端文件上传下载的资料请关注其它相关文章!

原文地址:https://juejin.cn/post/7148832320277987342
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